We should not assume that making sense of post-Soviet Russia was ever going to be easy. Great Powers that lose empires bear grudges and the speed with which an empire is lost can exacerbate the problem. No one can expect that a powerful country run by a former secret policeman is going to operate by the same rules of the game to which we are accustomed.

The Mathematics of Beauty

Can the beautiful object be created as a solution of a mathematical question? Herein are four examples of beautiful objects—Renaissance architecture, mosaic art, quasicrystals, and braids—and the mathematics behind them.
In the last decade, astronomical observations of several kinds, particularly of distant supernovae and the cosmic microwave background, also indicate the existence of what is known as dark energy, a uniform background field that is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

Life on Other Planets

Specifically, what we know is more than simply that life showed up early; we also know that we are aware that life showed up early. Put differently, in order for us to exist, enough time had to have elapsed after abiogenesis occurred such that creatures could evolve who are capable of contemplating the frequency of inhabited planets.

The Shiite Interpretation of the Status of Women

The movement of religious modernism, which has seen most of its growth since the death of Ayatollah Khomeini in 1989, focuses in particular on the issue of women with regard to the necessary changes in the legal system. The subject of women has thus become an issue that must be revealed in the sources of Islamic thought and tradition in order to be able to come to a modern interpretation that is in line with human rights.

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