Ideas

We feel strongly that the spirit characteristic of America at its noblest, above all the pursuit of higher learning, cannot admit of any conditions as to personnel other than those designed to promote the objects for which this institution is established, and particularly with no regard whatever to accidents of race, creed, or sex.
Ideas
The movement of religious modernism, which has seen most of its growth since the death of Ayatollah Khomeini in 1989, focuses in particular on the issue of women with regard to the necessary changes in the legal system. The subject of women has thus become an issue that must be revealed in the sources of Islamic thought and tradition in order to come to a modern interpretation that is in line with human rights.
Ideas

What Is a State?

We do not presume that it is a unified entity, but explore the diversity of its rationalities . . . The state, we believe, is what its agents do under the multiple influences of the policies they implement, the habits they develop, the initiatives they take, and the responses they get from their publics.
Ideas
There is no such thing as a homogeneous European culture, with which the Bosnian Muslims, the third-generation Turks in Germany, the Greeks, the Roma, the French Jews, the Basques, and the Laps––not to mention the Indians and Pakistanis living in London––can identify themselves.
Ideas
A knot in the mathematical sense is a possibly tangled loop, freely floating in ordinary space. It can be quite hard to make sense of a tangled piece of string—to decide whether it can be untangled and if so how. It is equally hard to decide if two tangles are equivalent.
Ideas
“...and the weekend was just deliriously happy. Feynman himself came to meet us at the station, after our l0-hour train journey and was in tremendous form, bubbling over with ideas and stories and entertaining us with performances on Indian drums from New Mexico until 1 a.m.” Freeman Dyson in a letter to his parents, November 1, 1948
Ideas
Some of the world’s foremost string theorists and cosmologists continue to interpret and test Einstein’s theory of general ­relativity, about which questions persist: What is the physics of black holes? Do space and time emerge from a more fundamental description? Why is the universe accelerating? How can general relativity be reconciled with quantum mechanics? What are the origins and the long-term fate of the universe? 

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