After twenty-five years of coups d’etat, Soviet occupation, and civil wars, Afghanistan was largely a failed state in the last quarter of 2001, according to Director's Visitor Lakhdar Brahimi, who presided over the UN Bonn Conference on Afghanistan in December 2001 and produced the peace agreement known as the Bonn Process. The Bonn Process led to Afghanistan’s adoption of a constitution, the holding of presidential and parliamentary elections, and various social and economic improvements.