Life without Pythons would be so Simple

Reconstruction of bulk operators within the causal wedge is simple to achieve using Lorentzian causal bulk dynamics. In contrast, the only known methods for reconstructing arbitrary operators in the full entanglement wedge (the Petz map, modular flow etc.) are highly complex from a boundary perspective. It was previously argued based on intuition from tensor networks that this complexity is necessary if the bulk operator hidden behind an extremal surface (in a ‘python’s lunch’). However in general there may be operators which are not in a lunch, but are also not in the causal wedge. I will argue that such operators can also be simply, and causally, reconstructed by gradually expanding the causal wedge using time folds with different boundary conditions.



University of California, Berkeley


Geoffrey Penington