Lecture 18: Schwarzschild's method


Binney and Tremaine, 4.7.2

Optional reading:

The following papers discuss the limitations of Jeans theorem:
Lynden-Bell, D. 1962, MNRAS 124, 1
Binney, J. 1982, MNRAS 201, 15
Kandrup, H. E. 1998, MNRAS 299, 1139

Schwarzschild, M. 1979, ApJ 232, 236 - the classic paper on constructing triaxial stellar systems

For a description of linear programming, see Numerical Recipes
For a description of Lucy's method for solving integral equations, see Appendix C of Binney and Merrifield
A recent article on quadratic programming methods is here

Dejonghe, H. 1989, ApJ 323, 113 - quadratic programming as an alternative to linear programming

de Zeeuw, P. T., Hunter, C., and Schwarzschild, M. 1987, ApJ 317, 607 - addresses the issue of whether triaxial stellar systems with a given density and potential are unique

Richstone, D. O., and Tremaine, S. 1984, ApJ 286, 27 - linear programming applied to spherical models

The state of the art in using Schwarzschild's method to model observations is described in

Cretton, N., et al. 1999, ApJS 124, 383

Gebhardt, K., et al. 2003, ApJ 583, 92

van de Ven, G., et al. 2005, astro-ph/0509228