Resources for Historians

Available resources by fields of research

Classics

http://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/home?&lang=en  The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg contains the texts of Latin and bilingual (i.e. Latin-Greek) inscriptions of the Roman Empire.

http://pleiades.stoa.org/  Pleiades is a community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places. It publishes authoritative information about ancient places and spaces, providing unique services for finding, displaying, and reusing that information under open license.

http://isaw.nyu.edu/publications/awol-index/index.html  This publication systematically describes ancient-world information resources on the world-wide web.

http://darmc.harvard.edu/ The Digital Atlas of Roman and Medieval Civilizations (DARMC) makes freely available on the internet the best available materials for a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to mapping and spatial analysis of the Roman and medieval worlds.

http://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-applications-in-archaeology-and-cultural-heritage Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (DAACH) is an on-line, peer-reviewed journal in which scholars can publish 3D digital models of the world's cultural heritage sites, monuments, andpalaeoanthropological remains accompanied by associated academic articles.

http://www.indiana.edu/~vwhl/  3D has become a new and powerful form of scholarly expression and communication. The mission of the Virtual World Heritage Laboratory is to apply these new tools not only as interactive illustrations but also as heuristic instruments of discovery. The scope of our interests – as implied by the phrase “World Heritage” – includes the entire human record. The focus of our investigations, as is suggested by the phrase “Virtual World” – is the 3D scientific simulation and how it can make possible experiences and experiments that – short of time travel – would otherwise not be possible.

http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Forum  From 1997 to 2003 the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory (CVR Lab) created a digital model of the Roman Forum as it appeared in late antiquity. The notional date of the model is June 21, 400 A.D. From 2002 to 2005, with generous support from the National Science Foundation, the CVRLab was able to create this Web site about the digital Forum model. The purposes of this site are to use the Internet to permit free use and easy viewing of the digital model by people all over the world; to provide documentation for the archaeological evidence and theories utilized to create the model; and to offer basic information about the individual features comprising the digital model so that their history and cultural context can be readily understood.

http://www.digitalsculpture.org  Through its Digital Sculpture Project, the Virtual World Heritage Laboratory is pioneering new solutions and applications in this important but neglected area of the digital humanities.  This website is devoted to studying ways in which 3D digital technologies can be applied to the capture, representation and interpretation of sculpture from all periods and cultures. Up to now, 3D technologies have been used in fruitful ways to represent geometrically simple artifacts such as pottery or larger-scale structures such as buildings and entire cities.

Medieval

http://stgallplan.org/ Carolingian Culture at Reichenau & St. Gall.  Manuscripts and Architecture from the Early Middle Ages.  This website presents digital versions of two of the gems surviving from the monasteries of Reichenau and St. Gall. One is the unique architectural drawing known as the Plan of St. Gall. The other is the extensive ninth-century library collections of the two monasteries, identifiable by their distinctive script. Both of these are complimented by various resources to assist in their study, providing further information about the material and intellectual contexts of Reichenau and St. Gall.

http://kos.aahvs.duke.edu/index.php  The Medieval Kingdom of Sicily Image Database: A Visual Resource of Historical Sites c. 1100 - c. 1450. This database is a collection of historic images that represents the medieval monuments and cities of the Kingdom of Sicily collected from museums, libraries, archives and publications.

http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/digitalscriptorium/ Digital Scriptorium (DS) is a growing consortium of libraries and museums committed to free online access to their collections of pre-modern manuscripts. Our website unites scattered resources from many institutions into an international resource for teaching and scholarly research. The DS website enables free and open access of historically significant but often understudied manuscript materials.

http://digi.vatlib.it/  DigiVatLib is a digital library service. It provides free access to the Vatican Library’s digitized collections of manuscripts and incunabula. DigiVatLib is based on the International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) technology, making digital materials easily accessible and usable.

http://image.ox.ac.uk/  Early Manuscripts at Oxford University. Digital facsimiles of complete manuscripts, scanned directly from the originals. This site provides access to over 80 early manuscripts now in institutions associated with the University of Oxford.

http://monasticmatrix.osu.edu/  Monastic Matrix is an ongoing collaborative effort by an international group of scholars of medieval history, religion, history of art, archaeology, religion, and other disciplines, as well as librarians and experts in computer technology. Our goal is to document the participation of Christian women in the religion and society of medieval Europe. In particular, we aim to collect and make available all existing data about Christian religious women in Europe between 400 and 1600 C.E.

https://blogs.commons.georgetown.edu/labyrinth/  The Labyrinth provides free, organized access to resources in medieval studies. The Labyrinth’s easy-to-use links provide connections to databases, services, texts, and images around the world. Each user will be able to find an Ariadne’s thread through the maze of information on the Web.

http://www.earlymedievalmonasticism.org/index.html  The Monastic Manuscript Project is a database of descriptions of manuscripts that contain texts relevant for the study of early medieval monasticism, especially monastic rules, ascetic treatises, vitae patrum-texts and texts related to monastic reforms. We provide lists of manuscripts for each of these texts, which are linked to manuscript descriptions. The purpose is to offer a tool for reconstructing not only the manuscript dissemination of early medieval monastic texts but also to give access to the specific contexts in which a text appears. 

Islamic and Near Eastern Studies

https://www.islamic-empire.uni-hamburg.de/en.html Jedli: A Textual Analysis Toolbox for Digitized Arabic Texts.  Inspired by the advent of digital humanities, the project team have started developing a number of tools for text mining and data analysis that more fully take advantage of the digitization of Arabic sources. 

https://www.academia.edu/28923960/Important_New_Developments_in_Arabographic_Optical_Character_Recognition_OCR_   Important New Developments in Arabographic Optical Character Recognition (OCR) by Maxim Romanov, Matthew Thomas Miller, Sarah Bowen Savant, and Benjamin Kiessling.

http://kitab-project.org/kitab/index.jsp  KITAB = a digital tool-box and a forum for discussions about Arabic texts. A tool that detects how authors copied previous works.

https://www.uclouvain.be/505178.html Qawl: a computer program for readers and searchers in the fields of Arabic studies.

https://www.google.com/get/noto/ Google Noto Fonts. When text is rendered by a computer, sometimes characters are displayed as “tofu”. They are little boxes to indicate your device doesn’t have a font to display the text. Noto provides pan-language harmony, yet maintains authenticity. The goal is great online readability across languages without losing the character that makes each script special. 

http://dasi.humnet.unipi.it/ Digital Archive for the Study of pre-Islamic Arabian Inscriptions (DASI) is a five-year project directed by prof. Alessandra Avanzini of the University of Pisa, which has been funded by the European Community within the Seventh Framework Programme “Ideas”, Specific Programme “ERC – Advanced Grant”. DASI seeks to gather all known pre-Islamic Arabian epigraphic material into a comprehensive online database, with the aim to make available to specialists and to the broader public a wide array of documents often underestimated because of their difficulty of access. 

https://islamichumanities.org  Digital Islamic Humanities Project a research initiative of the Middle East Studies program at Brown University. This site contains a working bibliography, useful resources, a frequently updated blog, and information about our recent conference on the Digital Humanities and Islamic & Middle East Studies.

http://digi.vatlib.it/  DigiVatLib is a digital library service. It provides free access to the Vatican Library’s digitized collections of manuscripts and incunabula. DigiVatLib is based on the International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) technology, making digital materials easily accessible and usable. 

http://persdig.umd.edu/  The "Roshan Initiative in Persian Digital Humanities, a collaborative effort involving Roshan Institute for Persian Studies, Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH), and UMD libraries currently developing three projects: Persian Digital Library (PDL), Persian Manuscript Initiative, and Lalehzar Street Digital Archive.

https://althurayya.github.io/#home  New working version of al-Ṯurayyā Gazetteer (or al-Thurayyā Gazetteer). Currently it includes over 2,000 toponyms and almost as many route sections georeferenced from Georgette Cornu’s Atlas du monde arabo-islamique à l'époque classique: IXe-Xe siècles(Leiden: Brill, 1983).

http://aghabozorg.ir/ Union Catalogue of Arabic and Persian Manuscripts in Iranian Libraries

http://www.syriaca.org  The Syriac Reference Portal is a digital project for the study of Syriac literature, culture, and history; a reference hub for digitally linking research findings. Publications compile and classify core data for the study of Syriac sources, offer the scholarly community digital tools for freely disseminating that data, and facilitate further research through the creation of shared digital tools and infrastructure.

http://dsu-beta.utsc.utoronto.ca/projects/serai/  Serai is a free and open online collaboratory for scholarship on premodern encounters across ethnolinguistic and religious divides, combining regional expertise with a keen interest in the transformative potential of digital scholarship.

http://www.mizanproject.org/ Mizan is a digital initiative dedicated to encouraging informed public discourse and interdisciplinary scholarship on the culture and history of Muslim societies.

http://www.ancientjewreview.com/  The Ancient Jew Review (AJR) is a non-profit web journal devoted to the study of Ancient Judaism. In this respect, AJR incorporates scholarship from a wide range of fields, including Roman History, Persian History, Biblical Studies, Ancient Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism, and the Second Temple. AJR is committed to regularly showcasing content from these respective fields, interviewing scholars on past and future projects, and discussing new publications in hopes of furthering the collaborative resources of scholarship in antiquity. 

http://kohepocu.cchs.csic.es/ Knowledge, Heresy and Politial Culture in the Islamic West (eight-fifteenth centuries). A database on the intellectual production of the Islamic West (al-Andalus and North Africa – Egypt excepted) with bio-bibliographical information on authors and works (manuscripts, editions, translations and studies). For the part on al-Andalus see HATA. The part on North Africa and Sicily (HATOI) can be consulted at this stage through a KOHEPOCU contact (see HATOI). 

http://wamcp.bibalex.org/  Wellcome Arabic Manuscripts Online. The Arabic manuscripts collection of the Wellcome Library (London) comprises around 1000 manuscript books and fragments relating to the history of medicine. For the first time this website enables a substantial proportion of this collection to be consulted online via high-quality digital images of entire manuscripts and associated rich metadata. These manuscripts are part of the Wellcome Library's Asian Collection, which comprises some 12,000 manuscripts and 4,000 printed books in 43 different languages. The Islamic holdings include Arabic and Persian manuscripts and printed books, and a small collection of Ottoman manuscripts and Turkish books. The core of these collections relates to the great heritage of classical medicine, preserved, enlarged and commentated on throughout the Islamic world, stretching from Southern Spain to South and South-east Asia.

http://www.jewishmanuscripts.org/  The Friedberg Jewish Manuscript Society (FJMS) Portal for Jewish Manuscripts and Books Projects. This portal contains references to six websites (Listed on the left side of the page) related in one way or another to Jewish manuscripts and their exposure to the general public, within the framework of advanced software systems. They are freely accessible to everyone anywhere, anytime. The Genizah site, the Nachum site and the Talmud Bavli variant-readings site contain together more than half-a-million high-quality digital images of all the relevant manuscripts.

https://digitalorientalist.com  The Digital Orientalist. This weblog was created to share my experience using digital tools in the Humanities. I am myself working on the history of Islamic philosophy, which is usually considered to be a sub-field of Islamic Studies. Eric van Lit, I mainly study Islamic philosophical texts from the medieval period. In particular, I investigate their intertextuality to better understand the mechanics of production and transmission of intellectual thought in the Islamic world. I draw especially from the notion of ‘Distant Reading’, that is, “understanding literature not by studying particular texts, but by aggregating and analyzing massive amounts of data. This allows me to develop a method to navigate the ocean of unread literature from the Late Medieval and Early Modern period. I further explore the notion of ‘commentary traditions;’ sets of texts from disparate socio-historical contexts that have in common that they all are commentaries on a particular text or author. Such commentary traditions give interesting dissections of this large, unexplored period.

http://alkindi4.ideo-cairo.org  AlKindi, the online catalogue of IDEO's library, one of the prominent libraries specialised in Islamic studies in the world. It is opened to all. Our library gathers over 125,000 monographs and nearly 1,800 journals and periodicals. It intends to cover all disciplines in Islamic studies: Arabic language, Quranic exegesis, theology, law and jurisprudence, history, philosophy, sufism, history of sciences. It provides more than 20,000 classical texts of the Arabic and Islamic heritage, and secondary literature in Arabic and European languages. Many PhD dissertations are also available.

http://www.christianlib.com  Library of Christian Books.

http://cpart.mi.byu.edu/  Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship Center for the Preservation of Ancient Religious Texts has sponsored research and conversations relating to ancient Christian, Jewish and Islamic texts

http://libguides.wustl.edu/c.php?g=46851&p=300086  Washington University in St. Louris, A Guide to Islamic and Near Eastern Studies, Middle Eastern Digitization Projects.

https://archive.org/details/opensource_Arabic Community Arabic Texts, user-uploaded texts with language code "Arabic" or "ara" (MARC code for Arabic language items)

http://www.marcmanley.com/library-of-islamic-books-and-documents/ Library of Islamic Books and Documents. 

https://www.academia.edu/26217093/Al-Furqan_Digital_Library_Portal_World_Islamic_manuscript_collections_catalogues_and_written_heritage_resources Al-Furqan’s Digital Library Portal gives scholars and researchers across the globe access to this wealth of newly-discovered material, much of which has been vastly underexploited to date. 

https://arabic.coptic-treasures.com/manuscripts/bible-manuscripts.php  Manuscripts for the Arabic Bible

http://alfeker.net/ Library of Arabic Books (dowloadeble PDF's.

http://www.orient-institut.org/index.php?id=143 Bibliotheca Islamica (BI) is the Orient-Institut Beirut’s platform for the critical edition of mainly Arabic texts. The series dates back to 1929, when Hellmut Ritter edited the Kitāb Maqālat al-islamīyīn wa-ḫtilāf al-muṣallīn of Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-Ašʿarī, a seminal text on dogmatic positions in the early Islamic period. 

http://syri.ac/digimss Syri.ac is an annotated bibliography of Syriac resources online. This site is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of open-access resources related to the study of Syriac. Syriac manuscripts online is a page that collected and organized all the dispersed and sometimes hard-to-find Syriac manuscript catalogs. That page, which provides direct links to PDFs of those catalogs, has proved useful to many scholars who would not otherwise have access to all of them in one place at their local libraries. However, since creating that page, several collections of Syriac manuscripts have been digitized and made freely available online. We have endeavored here to create a complimentary resource that offers direct access to digitized manuscripts around the world. We hope this new tool will provide further avenues of research in fields which utilize Syriac, Arabic, and Garshuni.  

http://alfeker.net/  Library of Arabic books in PDF format.

http://archive.sakhrit.co/ Archive of Arabic journals in culture and literature.

http://www.cgie.org.ir/fa/publication/volumes/63 Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i buzurg-i islāmī, general editor: Kāẓim Mūsawī Buǧnūrdī, Tehran: Markaz-i Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, 1989-

http://wqf.me/?p=16663  Library of Islamic Manuscripts.

http://byzantinenews.blogspot.com/2016/10/masterpieces-of-byzantine-and-early.html?m=1  Byzantine News. Masterpieces of Byzantine and Early Christian Art from Syria

https://alinsuciu.com/2016/10/13/complete-facsimile-edition-of-the-coptic-codices-from-hamuli-online/  Complete Facsimile Edition of the Coptic Codices from Hamuli Online.

East Asian Studies

http://chinadatacenter.org/Default.aspx   A primary goal of the Center is the integration of historical, social and natural science data in a geographic information system. Its missions are: to support research in the human and natural components of local, regional and global change; to promote quantitative research on China; to promote collaborative research in spatial studies; and to promote the use and sharing of China data in teaching and research. 

http://dh.chinese-empires.eu/beta/  With MARKUS you can upload a file in classical Chinese (and perhaps in the future other languages) and tagpersonal names, place names, temporal references, and bureaucratic offices automatically. You can also upload your own list of key terms for automated tagging.

http://blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/chinapolicyinstitute/2016/06/07/imperial-chinese-studies-and-trends-in-the-digital-humanities/

http://gis.harvard.edu/resources/data/china-gis-data  China GIS Data from the Center for Geographic Anaslysis (Harvard University); GIS infrastructure, collect and disseminate spatial datasets, and provide training and consultation in the use of geospatial technologies.

http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/cbdb/history-of-cbdb  The China Biographical Database (CBDB) is a freely accessible relational database with biographical information primarily from the 7th through 19th centuries. 

http://hanchi.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/ihp/hanji.htm  The Scripta Sinica database contains almost all of the important Chinese classics, especially those related to Chinese history. The first aim of this project was to digitize all documents essential to research in traditional Sinology. Secondly, a full-text database was established for academic research. Until present, Scripta Sinica is the largest Chinese full text database to encompass an enormous breadth of historical materials of this scale.

Art History

http://www.stambouline.com/  Stambouline is dedicated to exploring the art and architecture of the Ottoman Empire and beyond, looking at the stories behind the buildings and objects that have been left behind. Each post introduces a new place or object, and there is always some suggested reading if you want to learn more.

http://www.europeana.eu/portal/en  Europeana Collections, we transform the world with culture! We want to build on Europe’s rich heritage and make it easier for people to use, whether for work, for learning or just for fun by enabling people to explore the digital resources of Europe's museums, libraries, archives and audio-visual collections.

http://www.arthistoricum.net  One search, many possibilities: arthistoricum.net. Research in the special interest collection catalogues for Contemporary Art and Art History, in the Deutsche Fotothek image database (German Photographic Collections), find data on artists, Internet sources, articles, artlibraries.net. With arthistoricum.net, you can research the whole subject spectrum belonging to Art History, beginning with the Early Christian era up to the present.  Using the search function at arthistoricum.net, you’ll have access to bibliographical information on literature from the entire collection of the Special Subject Catalogues for Art (Heidelberg University Library) and Contemporary Art (Dresden SLUB) – as well as content from the arthistoricum web pages.

http://artdiscovery.net/  ArtDiscovery Group Catalogue. This group catalogue, launched in May 2014, offers an art-focused research experience within the WorldCat environment. The catalogues of many important art libraries worldwide are searchable alongside additional content from a multitude of additional sources, promising more comprehensive results in a global setting.

http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/ The Getty Research institute is dedicated to furthering knowledge and advancing understanding of the visual arts and their various histories through its expertise, active collecting program, public programs, institutional collaborations, exhibitions, publications, digital services, and residential scholars programs. 

http://search.proquest.com/iba/index  International Bibliography of Art (IBA). The definitive resource for scholarly literature on Western art, IBA is the successor to the Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), and retains the editorial policies which made BHA one of the most trusted and frequently consulted sources in the field. The database includes records created by the Getty Research Institute in 2008-09, with new records created by ProQuest using the same thesaurus and authority files. The database will grow by 18,000 records per year, ensuring unbroken coverage of journals that were indexed in BHA and IBA prior to 2010. The initial data set created by the Getty Research Institute in 2008-2009 covers scholarship up to 2009, including retrospective records for material published in previous years, and in some cases the new ProQuest indexing will also cover retrospective years in order to fill gaps in coverage.

http://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/titles-with-full-text-online?searchtype=F Metropolitan Museum, MetPublications, five decades of Met publications on art history, available to read, download, and/or search for fee.

Modern History

https://www.lib.umn.edu/subjects/rqs/408  University of Minnesota, Selected Resources for: Early Modern History: Digital Resources

http://commons.earlymodernweb.org/tag/digital

www.nines.org  NINES (Networked Infrastructure for Nineteenth-Century Electronic Scholarship) is a scholarly organization devoted to forging links between the material archive of the nineteenth century and the digital research environment of the twenty-first. The NINES Collex interface is at the center of these efforts. It aims to gather the best scholarly resources in the field and make them fully searchable and interoperable; and to provide an online collecting and authoring space in which researchers can create and publish their own work. NINES also is home to Juxta, a tool for comparing and collating multiple documentary instances of the same work; and to Ivanhoe, a collaborative game-space for interpreting textual and other cultural materials.

http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home  Early English Books Online (EEBO) contains digital facsimile page images of virtually every work printed in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and British North America and works in English printed elsewhere from 1473-1700 - from the first book printed in English by William Caxton, through the age of Spenser and Shakespeare and the tumult of the English Civil War.

History of Science

http://www.blumenbach-online.de/index.php?id=2&L=1 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach – online. This project entails: An internet edition of Blumenbach’s published writings including their translations and reissues; An annotated calendar of Blumenbach’s correspondence; A reconstruction of his collection of objects of natural history; A documentation of the contemporary as well as later reception of Blumenbach; The hyperlinking of the digital texts and objects; Biographical studies of Blumenbach.

https://www.plos.org/  Public Life of Science (PLOS) is a nonprofit publisher, innovator and advocacy organization. PLOS believes that scientific ideas and discoveries are a public good. Their benefit will only be fully realized when scientists have effective means to rapidly communicate ideas, results and discoveries to each other and to the broader public.

http://digitalhps.org Digital HPS.  Digital History and Philosophy of Science (dHPS) brings together historians and philosophers of science, with informaticians, computer scientists, and reference librarians with the goal of thinking of new ways to integrate traditional scholarship with digital tools and resources.

https://digital.libraries.ou.edu/homescience.php  University of Oklahoma Libraries - The History of Science Collections are a premier research collection holding nearly 100,000 volumes from every field and subject area of science, technology, and medicine. 

https://corpusnewtonicum.wordpress.com/2015/10/16/isaac-newton-library-online/  Isaac Newton Library Online.  And there is it, in all its glory: the full library of Isaac Newton. Please find it here. Natural philosopher, mathematician, scholar, theologian, historian, alchemist: reflecting all of Newton’s interests and much more. With the usual suspects (Boyle, Hooke, Huygens, some chap called Euclid) and many, many other interesting, odd, even quirky volumes. It’s been bloody hard work, with all the Greek and so on, and the transformation from a printed to an online volume, but it’s absolutely worth it, and I am extremely proud of everyone involved.

http://digital.lib.usu.edu/cdm/landingpage/collection/History_sci The History of Science Digital Collection presents some of Utah State University’s most beautiful and significant scientific treasures, many of them from the Merrill-Cazier Library’s recently acquired Peter W. van der Pas history of science collection, a treasure-trove of titles showing the development of scientific thought. Focusing on it's rarest, most exquisitely illustrated books from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, this collection offers works by such major figures in the history of scientific inquiry as Otto Brunfels, Charles Darwin, Erasmus Darwin, Carolus Linnaeus Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Jan Swammerdam, James Sowerby, Andreas Vesalius, and others.

http://www.lindahall.org/collections/histsci/  Linda Hall Library: Science, Engineering & Technology Information for the World. The History of Science Collection includes printed books from the fifteenth century to the present. Additional materials to support historical research are available in the Library’s general collections of over one million volumes.

http://library.si.edu/libraries/dibner-library-history-science-and-technology The Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology is the Smithsonian’s collection of rare books and manuscripts relating to the history of science and technology. Contained in this world-class collection of 35,000 rare books and 2,000 manuscript groups are many of the most important works dating from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries in the history of science and technology including engineering, transportation, chemistry, mathematics, physics, electricity, and astronomy. 

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/collections/digital/ US National Library of Medicine. NLM historical collections include selected digitized material relating to the history of medicine. Chosen from the manuscripts and books collections, the prints and photographs collection, historical films and videos, current and past exhibitions, and the Digital Manuscripts Program, these digitized materials cover a spectrum of centuries and cultures from medieval Islam to contemporary biomedical research.

http://wamcp.bibalex.org/  Wellcome Arabic Manuscripts Online. The Arabic manuscripts collection of the Wellcome Library (London) comprises around 1000 manuscript books and fragments relating to the history of medicine. For the first time this website enables a substantial proportion of this collection to be consulted online via high-quality digital images of entire manuscripts and associated rich metadata. These manuscripts are part of the Wellcome Library's Asian Collection, which comprises some 12,000 manuscripts and 4,000 printed books in 43 different languages. The Islamic holdings include Arabic and Persian manuscripts and printed books, and a small collection of Ottoman manuscripts and Turkish books. The core of these collections relates to the great heritage of classical medicine, preserved, enlarged and commentated on throughout the Islamic world, stretching from Southern Spain to South and South-east Asia.