Workflow and Procedures


Clean Room DNA extraction
Library preparation
Shotgun sequencing 
Targeted capture
Data analysis and Interpretation



We are specifically targeting a combinaiton of millions of SNPs and neutral regions of nuclear DNA as well as whole genomes. These data should provide sufficient power to detect recent movement from northern Europe into Italy; to accurately infer kinship within individual cemeteries; and to apply population genetics to test competing models that describe the potential demographic histories of the region.

​We are currently sampling graves from 56 cemeteries in the region as shown on this map.


The following chart indicate from each cemetery which samples have been collected, which have been sequenced for mtDNA, which have or will undergo nuclear capture, and in addition which have been the object of isotopic analysis. It will be updated periodically as more samples are collected and sequenced.

Italy Samples   Hungary Samples   Legend
Cividale S. Stefano in Pertica 14   Szólád 47   Total in Lab
Cividale Ferrovia 73   Rácalmás 6   Authorized to be sample
Povegliano Veronese 113   Lápolnásnyék 3   Waiting for info
Fiesole, Piazza Garibaldi 21   Kajdacs      
Collegno (TO) 107   Gyönk 1    
Rivoli La Perosa (TO) 18   Tamási 25    
Rivoli Corso Levi (TO) 37   Gyirmót 33    
Mombello Monferrato (AL) 12   Fertoszentmiklos 7    
S. Gervasio, Centallo (CN) 38   Menfocsanak 24    
S. Lorenzo, Gozzano (NO) 4   Hegykő  80    
Cripta S. Anastasio, Asti 17   Hács-Béndekpuszta 8    
Piazza Risorgimento, Alba (CN) 6   Fonyód 9    
Bergamo, via Osmano (BG) 3   Balantoszemes-Szemesi Berek 11    
Fara Olivana (BG) 88   Keszthely 12    
Caravaggio-Masano 3   Csákberény 69    
Provincia di Brescia (BS) Simone, Flero     Hajdunanas 63    
Splilamberto (MO) 4   Austria      
Andrazza, Forni di Sopra (UD) 7   Maria Ponsee 96    
Vicenne Campochiaro     Brunn am Gebirge 33    
Torino, Palazzo Carignano 8   Mödling 4    
Corte Romana 35   Hauskirchen 20    
Casirate (BG) 25   Czech Republic      
Martinengo (BG) 9   Mušov (Roviny) 99    
Bariano 5   Nová Ves      
Cassano d'Adda (MI)     Holubice      
Monastero dell'Assunta, Cairate (VA) 7   Lužice      
Zanica 16   Žuráň      
Tortona     Šaratice      
Collgeno (TO) 6          
Bardonnecchia-Tur D'Amont (TO) 14   Legend      
Pariol, Cesana Torinese (TO) 6   Total in Lab      
S. Pietro al Natisone 27   Authorized to be sample      
San Martino di Remanzacco 34   Waiting for info      
San Lorenzo a Quingentole (MN)            
Cividale Palazzo Patriarcale 14          
San Carlo, Torino 2          
Palazzo Carignamo, Torino 3          
Armeria Reale, Torino 3          


As a test case to examine genetic distance between two similar sites, one in Pannonia and one in Italy, we have selected two especially well excavated and documented cemeteries that contain similar types of artifacts and burial customs that archaeologists have termed Lombard for detailed analysis.









At Szólád we are sequencing all of the graves in order to recover genetic kinship relationships among those buried there. At Collegno we are doing the same for those burials that took place during its first phase, late in the sixth century.  At the same time we are sequencing specimens collected from near-by cemeteries that evidence different mortuary customs in order to compare them with our two test cases. Finally, we are adding data from Strontium (Sr), Oxygen (O) and Carbon (C3 and C4) isotopic analysis of select graves as well as C14 dating to confirm the archaeologically determined dates of individual graves.